Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an animal virus disease that is extremely infectious. It’s one of the most dangerous diseases for livestock. It affects cloven-hoofed animals, such as cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, deer, and pigs, since their hooves are divided. It has been recorded in countries throughout the world, including Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. Although the disease can result in substantial production losses, the disease’s most significant impact is on livestock and livestock product exchange.
The virus is divided into seven serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1. More than 60 strains are subdivided from these. The significance of these serotypes is that prevention against one serotype (via vaccination, for example) does not protect from infection with a different serotype. In different parts of the world, different serotypes predominate.
In India, the disease is widespread and has a significant impact on the livestock industry. Indirect contact with polluted water, manure, grain, and pastures, as well as direct contact with infected water, manure, hay, and pastures, spreads the disease. Cattle attendants also transport it. Recovered wildlife, field rats, porcupines, and birds have all been known to spread it.
Foot and mouth disease affects which species
FMD is a disease that affects cloven-hoofed livestock, such as cattle, buffalo, camels, dogs, goats, deer, and pigs.
How foot and mouth disease spread
FMD is a viral infection that spreads quickly among animals. Viruses can be found in saliva, mucus, milk, and faces. Animals will excrete the virus for up to four days before showing clinical symptoms. Inhalation, ingestion, and physical touch are all ways for animals to become infected. The most common way for the disease to spread is through the movement of infected animals. In sheep, signs can be absent or mild, and infected sheep that go undetected may be a major source of infection. The FMD virus may also be transmitted by mud or manure stuck to boots, clothes, livestock equipment, or vehicle tyres, or by the wind.
Pigs are known as ‘amplifying hosts,’ because they can expel vast amounts of virus in their exhaled breath. Cattle are highly sensitive to the virus and can be contaminated by inhaling tiny amounts of it. The virus can be borne by certain animals (‘carriers’) for long periods of time (months or years) after they appear to be recovered.
How infectious is foot and mouth disease?
FMD spreads quickly from one animal to another, especially in cold, damp climates and/or when animals are confined or housed in close quarters. The virus can live at temperatures below 4 degrees Celsius, but as the temperature rises, it becomes inactivated. When the relative humidity is less than 60%, it quickly deactivates.
Symptoms of foot and mouth disease
- 104-105°F fever.
- Ropes of stringy saliva hang from the mouth due to excessive salivation.
- Vesicles appear in the mouth and in cyberspace.
- lameness has been observed
- It is particularly dangerous to crossbred cattle.
Treatment for hand and foot disease
There is no treatment available. Animals who have been harmed will recover. Vaccines can shield animals from contracting the disease, but they do not guarantee that they will not become infected. In certain countries, vaccination is used to manage the disease when it is endemic. It is critical to eliminate the virus as soon as possible in order for a country to regain FMD-free status and limit the economic consequences. To eliminate this disease, movement controls and the removal of infected animals (along with other complementary control measures such as cleaning and sanitizing) are needed. Vaccination is a valuable method for containing and eliminating FMD, but its use can have trade consequences.
Preventive measures of foot and mouth disease in animals
- Heavy milking animals and exotic milking cattle should be covered on a regular basis.
- It is recommended that two vaccines be given at six-month intervals, followed by an annual vaccination schedule.
- Sick animals are isolated and segregated. It should be reported to the veterinary doctor right away.
- Animal sheds are disinfected with bleaching powder or phenol.
- the animal’s proper management of leftover feed
- The equipment should be sanitized thoroughly.